عنوان مقاله [English]
The evolving trend of rural and agricultural societies in North Central Iran in the late fourth millennium BC stopped suddenly and population declined dramatically. This cultural decline continued until the end of the Bronze Age, and by the mid-second millennium BC, the Iron Age cemeteries appeared largely without the settlement and agricultural activity, with a different culture. Given the material culture of these societies, the cemeteries appear to have belonged to pastoral-nomads. These tribes are believed to have migrated from the northern latitudes to the Iranian plateau, probably due to climate and environmental change. However, it also appears, due to extreme weather events related to the 5.2, 4.2 and 3.2 ka BP climatic events, such as severe droughts and torrential rains, native societies of North Central Iran affected by famine, diseases, violence, migration and mortality, using strategies of resilience and adaptation, such as the overall change of subsistence system from sedentary-farming to nomadic-pastoral/hunting, were trying to resist the adverse conditions. Here, it has been attempted to study the long-term cultural decline in North Central Iran, using the paleo-climate and paleo-environment conditions of the region. The results show that the abrupt climate change played a direct and important role in cultural changes and social, economic, political evolution.
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