Investigation of the trend of Aridity index in the northern stations of Iran during the period 1982-2019

Document Type : Original Article


1 Researcher at Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Iran

2 modares university



The impact of climate change on natural resources has become one of the greatest human concerns at the local, regional and global levels in recent years. One of negative impact of climate change is change of aridity index trend and transformation of hydro-ecological conditions in different regions. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the trend of Aridity index (IA) in northern stations of Iran during the period 1982-2009. To do so, the Penman equation was used to calculate the daily potential evaporation. Thereafter, the drought index values were calculated using the precipitation and potential evaporation parameters. Results demonstrate that precipitation values have been decreased during 1982-2019 in northern strip of Iran, so that precipitation has decreased by 300 mm during 2012-2019 in Bandar-e-Anzali station compared to the 10-year period (1982-1991). Temperature values have also increased in the northern stations of the country. Air temperature has increased about 1, 1.7, 0.1, 1.9 and 1.) 5C° ) in Rasht, Ramsar, Gorgan, Babolsar and Bandar-e-Anzali stations respectively. Furthermore, drought index represents a decreasing trend in all studied station during 1982-2019. The trend of Aridity index during 2019-2012 compared to the 10-year period (1982-1991) are -0.178, -0.011, -0.091, -0.142 and -0.420 in Rasht, Ramsar, Gorgan, Babolsar and Anzali stations, respectively.


  1. زارع، محمد، پور محمدی سمانه و حمید سودایی زاده (1395). دسته­بندی مناطق همگن خشکی به کمک روش­های گشتاور خطی و تحلیل خوشه­ای، جغرافیا و برنامه­ریزی محیطی، شماره 2 (پیاپی 62).
  2. سهامی، زهرا و مهشید حائری (1389). صنعت بیمه و تغییر اقلیم- قسمت سوم (گزارشی از انجمن اقتصاد بیمه ژنو)، پژوهشکده بیمه.
  3. نوری، میلاد، مهدی همایی و محمد بنایا (1395). بررسی روند تغییرات شاخص خشکی طی دوره 2100-1966 در شمال غرب ایران، نشریه علمی- پژوهشی مهندسی و مدیریت آبخیز، شماره 4، صص 453-439.
  4. Alexandrov, V.A. and Hoogenboom, G. (2000). The impact of climate variability and change on crop yield in Bulgaria. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 104: 315-327.
  5. Arora, Vivek, K. (2002). The use of the aridity index to assess climate change effect on annual runoff, Journal of Hydrology, 265: 164-177.
  6. Dai, A.  (2013). Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models, Nat. Clim. Change, 3: 52-58.
  7. Greve, P., Roderick, M.L., Ukkola, A.M. and Wada, Y. (2019). The aridity Index under global warming, Environmental Research Letters, 14: 4-13.
  8. IPCC, Climate Change (2014). Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K., and Meyer, L.A., (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland; 151 pp.
  9. Khasnis A.A. and Mary D. Nettleman (2005). Global Warming and Infectious Disease, Archives of Medical Research, 36: 689-696.
  10. Imura, R., & Moriyama, M. (2021). Use of A MODIS Satellite-Based Aridity Index to Monitor Drought Conditions in Mongolia from 2001 to 2013, Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2561. Liu, X., Zhang, D., Luo, Y., & Liu, C. (2012). Spatial and temporal changes in aridity index in northwest China: 1960 to 2010. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 122(1-2), 307-316.
  11. Maliva, R., & Missimer, T. (2012). Arid Lands Water Evaluation and Management. Environmental Science and Engineering.
  12. J.W. (1994). Dictionary of Global Climate Change, first published in North America in 1992 by Chapman& Hall, Inc.
  13. Reilly, J., Schimmelpfennig, D. & Lewandrowski, J. (2000). Global, regional and local food production and trade in a changing environment. In: Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity (Eds.: K.R. Reddy and H.F. Hodges). CABI Pub., New York, pp. 437-455.

14.              Sahin, S. (2012). An aridity index defined by precipitation and specific humidity, Journal of Hydrology. 444-445: 199-208

15.              Trenberth Kevin E, Aiguo Dai, G. Van der Schrier, P.D. Jones (2013). Global warming and changes in drought, Nature Climate Change, 4(1): 17-22.

  1. Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Cuadrat-Prats, J.M., and Romo, A. (2006). Aridity influence on vegetation patterns in the middle Ebro Valley (Spain): Evaluation by means of AVHRR images and climate interpolations techniques. Journal of Arid Environments, 66: 353-375.
  2. Wang, X., Dabang Jiang, & Xianmei Lang (2021). Future changes in Aridity Index at two and four degrees of global warming above preindustrial levels, 41: 278-294.
  3. Wang F. & Jintao Zhang (2020) Arid/humid patterns over Asia in responseto national-committed emission reductions under the Paris agreement, Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.
  4. Werz, M. and Conley, L. (2012). Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict (Addressing complex crisis scenarios in the 21st Century), Center for American progress,
  5. Yano, T., Aydın, M. & Haraguchi, T. (2007). Impact of climate change on irrigation demand and crop growth in a Mediterranean environment of Turkey. Sensors. 7: 2297-2315.
  6. Zhang, C., Yuyu Ren, Lijuan Cao, Jia Wu, Siqi Zhang, Chuanye Hu and Sangbu Zhujie (2021). Characteristics of Dry-Wet Climate Change in China during the Past 60 Years and Its Trends Projection, Atmosphere, 13, 275.